Of particular value to us are rare plants – living natural monuments.

Of particular value to us are rare plants – living natural monuments.

Natural fires. Every year in dry, hot weather the danger of forest and peat fires increases sharply. Forest fires occur mainly through human fault and due to certain natural factors. The cause of fires is human production (incineration of waste in areas adjacent to the forest) and its carelessness (fires, cigarette butts, matches).

The fire can grow rapidly and, picked up by the wind, become a fiery shaft that destroys all living things in its path and turns forests into unviable deserts. At the same time there is a great threat to settlements, people’s lives, pets, material values. The most dangerous are hot and dry summer days with a relative humidity of 30-40%.

Depending on the nature of the fire, the speed of the fire and the extent of forest damage, there are four categories of forest fires:

grassroots (or lowland); riding (or general); underground (peat or soil); fire hollow trees.

The most common are grassroots fires, which account for about 80% of all possible fires. Lowland (lowland) fires develop due to the burning of coniferous undergrowth, living ground cover (moss, lichen, herbaceous plants, shrubs and bushes) or litter (fallen leaves, needles, bark, dry matter, shrubs, windbreaks, weeds, rotten stumps ), ie plants and plant remains located directly on the ground or at a small height (one and a half to two meters).

The flame has a height of up to 50 cm, the speed of fire is small – 100-200 meters per hour, and in strong winds – up to a kilometer in the plains and from one to three kilometers.

Upper forest fires develop from lower and their difference is that not only the ground cover burns, but also the lower tiers of trees and the crowns of poles. There can also be peak fires, when the fire destroys only the treetops. But without the accompaniment of lowland fire, they can not last long.

During horse fires, a lot of heat is released. The height of the flame is 100 meters or more. In such cases, the fire spreads over long distances, sometimes several hundred kilometers, because the speed of the fire increases to 8-25 km per hour.

Underground (soil or peat) fires often occur in late summer, as a continuation of the lower or upper. The deepening of the bottom fire begins near the trunks of trees, then it spreads in different directions up to several meters per day. In the centers of soil fires there are blockages from fallen trees and areas of burnt peat.

However, peat fires may not be the result of forest fires. They often occupy huge spaces and are very difficult to extinguish. Their danger is that combustion occurs underground, creating voids in peat that has already burned. Large areas are smoky, which is irritating to people and complicates firefighting; limits visibility; negatively psychologically affects the population. Most often fire-hazardous conditions develop in the Steppe, Polissya and Forest-Steppe zones, in the mountains of Crimea.

The most common are forest and peat fires, as forests and peatlands cover more than 10 million hectares of Ukraine. 31% of forests are located in the northern region, 17% – in the east, 10% – in the south, 8% – in the southwest and 32% – in the west. The forest fund of Ukraine consists of almost 50% of coniferous forests, of which 60% are young.

As a result of large-scale afforestation works on hundreds of thousands of hectares, pine plantations have been created, which have reached a critical, in terms of fire, age 15-30 years. Ukraine’s forests in most of its regions are unable to withstand the growing flow of vacationers, as their area is much smaller than scientifically sound standards.

This situation is most typical for Kherson, Mykolaiv, Luhansk, Donetsk, Poltava regions, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, which are considered the most fire-hazardous. On average, per year, depending on weather conditions, there are about 3.5 thousand fires, which destroy more than 5 thousand hectares of forest. The most fire-hazardous are the northern and eastern regions, where an average of 37 and 40% of all forest fires occur annually, respectively.

Conclusions. Summarizing all the above, we can draw the following conclusions.

Emergencies of natural origin in Ukraine are divided into: geological, geographical, meteorological, agrometeorological, marine hydrological, hydrological hazardous phenomena, natural fires, etc. Their emergence is facilitated by a number of factors, in particular, the peculiarities of the geographical position of Ukraine, atmospheric processes, the presence of mountains, elevations, the proximity of warm seas and others. Also, sadly admit it, a huge “driving force” of natural disasters is human activity.

Given the high degree of anthropogenization of the territory of Ukraine, with the excess of man-made load on the environment in 5-6 times compared to other developed countries, a separate group of natural and man-made hazards associated with the operation of dams , reservoirs, land reclamation and water supply, mining operations. On the other hand, there is always a threat of natural phenomena on various industrial facilities, structures and so on.

Destruction or damage to such facilities with hazardous industries can lead to fires, explosions, emissions of hazardous substances, flooding, radioactive contamination. Natural disasters can lead to traffic accidents, accidents in power plants.

Literature

Dmitriev Yu. D. Environmental protection. – K.: Vishcha school, 197. – 189s. Yelin Yu. Ya., Zerova M. Ya. Ukraine: ecological aspect. – K.: Prosvita, 1995 .– 217p. Yemchenko OP Safety of life. – Kharkiv: Astra-Press, 1996 .– 98p.

04/28/2011

Forests of Ukraine: the situation and human impact. Abstract

The forest always plays a big role in human life. Currently, it is impossible to name a branch of the economy where the main forest products are not wood

Of all the natural resources that make up the treasury of our country, the forest occupies a special place. This is the most perfect, reproducible natural complex, which provides more than 20 thousand types of valuable products.

Ukrainian land is generously endowed with nature. Almost 4,500 species of higher plants are woven into a colorful emerald wreath of flora of Ukraine. Here are the forests of Polissya and the green Carpathians, the groves of Podillya and representatives of the Crimean subtropics.

The forest is a certain natural complex, which includes in addition to representatives of the plant world, animals, birds, various insects, myriads of microorganisms.

The world’s timber reserves are 484 billion cubic meters. There are about 200,000 species of higher vascular plants on Earth. Man uses only one hundredth of them. Of particular value to us are rare plants – living natural monuments. There are 187 such unique plants in Ukraine.

The source of energy for plant organisms is the Sun. Plants are not only suppliers of energy and various organic compounds for all other living beings, but also producers of atmospheric oxygen, without which the life of man, animals, many microorganisms and plants themselves is impossible.

Forests on the territory of Ukraine are unevenly distributed. Thus, in Polissya their area is 37%, in the Forest-Steppe – 30.2%, in the Carpathians – 22.8%, in the Steppe – 5.8% and in the Crimea – 4.2% of the total area of ​​these zones. The highest forest cover in the Carpathians is 40.2%. Mountain forests play important water protection and water regulation functions. Forests play an equally important ecological role in protecting soils from erosion, especially in mountainous conditions, climate regulation, and creating conditions for human health and recreation.

In the forests of Ukraine grows 200 tree and shrub species: pine, oak, spruce, spruce, beech, hornbeam, ash, birch, alder, aspen, willow and more. In Ukraine, deciduous plantations predominate – 55% of the area. They grow 21.4% of the country’s oak forests. Beech forests make up 19%, ash plantations – 12%.

In terms of species composition in the forests of Ivano-Frankivsk region, coniferous forest formers are dominated by European spruce (52%) and white fir (5%), of deciduous forest-forming species the largest share falls on forest beech (21% ) and common oak (11%).

The oldest forests in the Transcarpathian region. Their average age is 63 years. In the Carpathian region, young plantations reach 42%, and the rest – 58%. In Ukraine, more than half of the plantations are young. They make up 56%.

The First and Second World Wars caused huge losses to Ukraine’s forests. According to the All-Ukrainian Forest Administration, in 1923 the area of ​​felling was 669 thousand hectares, and plantings of young cattle plowed by cattle – 123 thousand hectares.

The flora and fauna of Ukraine has changed radically. Forest areas since the XVI century. constantly reduced.

Until the 1960s, the forests of Ivano-Frankivsk region were really cut down excessively. But this phenomenon is long gone. Such a fate befell forests in other regions of Ukraine. Then there were different problems, different policies. The task of foresters today is to ensure ecologically balanced forestry and forest use.

In connection with the adoption of the Law of Ukraine “On a moratorium on continuous felling on mountain slopes in fir-beech forests of the https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ Carpathian region” since 2001 and for ten years in fir and beech forests on steep slopes will not be continuous felling of the main use, and only selective and gradual.

The law also requires that timber be harvested and exported in mountain forests since 2005 only with the use of wheeled tractors, horses, a narrow-gauge system and the optimization of the forest road network.

The forest always plays a big role in human life. Currently, it is impossible to name a branch of the economy where the main forest products are not wood.

In the list of raw materials needed by man at the present stage, wood is second only to food and coal. Mankind produces from wood up to 20 thousand different products. it is used by woodworking, plywood, furniture and other enterprises in housing construction, for the manufacture of sleepers, matches, etc.